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The program used for this test is at  For more information, please visit TYPING filed under MY REFERENCE DESK.

The following text is from

Geography Terms

All processes that that remove snow or ice from a glacier or snowfield.
A wearing of away of material by friction.
The world’s fifth largest continent.
Arctic Circle
An imaginary line that encircles the North Pole at approximately latitude 66° N. It is south of the North Pole. It marks the northernmost point at which the sun is visible on the northern winter solstice and the southernmost point at which the midnight sun can be seen on the northern summer solstice.
Dry, having little rainfall.
Canopy tress
Trees that make up the highest layer of leaf cover in a forest.
The drawing or creating of maps.
The bed of a stream or waterway.
The weather conditions over a period of time in a particular area. Major climates include: polar, dry, mild, continental, mountain, and tropical.
A large landmass, as distinct from the oceans. The seven continents are: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica. There are also a group of islands in the Pacific ocean which geographers refer to as Oceania. [Oceania is not a continent.]
Continental drift
A scientific theory first put forth by Afred Wegener in 1915. The theory states that at some time in the distant past, there existed one single, large “supercontinent” called Pangaea. Approximately 200 million years ago, this landmass broke up, pieces of which “drifted,” forming the continents as we known them today. The idea eventually led to the today’s theory of plate tectonics.
The point of intersection of a latitude line and a longitude line.
The layer of rock on the Earth’s surface.
A triangular feature at the mouth of a river or stream comprised of silt formed by deposited sediment.
An arid region with little or no vegetation.
A disturbance or shaking of the Earth’s surface due to underground movement.
The total or partial cutting off of light from one celestial body by another.
A complex system of interaction between living organisms and their non-living environment.
Wearing away of the Earth’s surface by water, ice, wind.
An imaginary circle that goes horizontally around the middle earth at its widest point. Zero degrees latitude. It divides the northern and southern hemispheres.
A biological community dominated by trees and other woody plants.
Geographic coordinates
Imagine that lines of latitude and lines of longitude form a grid over the Earth’s surface. A coordinate is formed by the intersection of a latitude line and a longitude line. In this way, any location on the earth can be determined.
Bodies of ice and compacted snow. Glaciers are formed with the termperature is too cold to allow accumulating snow to melt. The snow compacts and eventually the snow crystals change into granular ice crystals called firn. As the firn becomes buried under more accumulating snow, it changes into solid ice. The changes takes years to accomplish.
There are two categories of glaciers: Alpine (which form on mountainsides) or ice sheets (which form on flat land). Glaciers cover approximately 10% of the Earth’s land surface.
A narrow, steep-sided valley or canyon. Gorges may or may not have a river at their
Areas in which grass is the primary, natural vegetataion. The two main categories of grassland are temperate grasslands and tropical grasslands.
Greenhouse effect
The phenomenon whereby absorbed solar radiation is re-emitted from the Earth’s surface but is prevented from escaping into the atomosphere by radiatively active gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and other trace gases). This causes a rise in the Earth’s temperature.
Half of the earth’s surface. There are four hemispheres: The northern hemisphere (north of the eqautor); the southern hemisphere (south of the equator); the eastern hemisphere (east of the prime meridian); the western hemisphere (west of the prime meridian).
A body of land completely surround by water.
A tropical cyclone with sustained winds of 74 miles per hour or greater in the North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.
A body of water surrounded by land.
Latitude lines
Imaginary lines running horizontally around the globe equi-distance from one another. Zero degrees latitude is at the earth’s equator. The lines increase from 0 degrees to 90 degrees north (going upward from the equator to the North Pole), and from 0 degrees to 90 degreds south (going downward to the South Pole).
Longitude lines

Imaginary lines running vertically around the globe. Longitude lines are not equi-distant (parallel). The lines are widest apart at the equator and eventually meet at the poles. Zero degrees longitude is called the prime meridian. Longitude lines are also called meridian lines.
Map Projections
Two-dimensional representations of earth. See Mercator projection and Robinson projection.
Mercator Projection
A cylindrical map projection. First introduced in 1569 by a Flemish mathematician and geographer named Gerhard Mercator. It is commonly used in navigational charts. Distortions occur as you move either far north or far south.
Imaginary lines running vertically spanning the globe, passing through the North and South poles. Lines of longitude.
A landform that rises 1,000 or more feet above the land around it.
Plate Tectonics
The scientific theory that the earth’s lithosphere is divided into plates, or semi-rigid sections, which move horizontally and interact with one another, causing the formation of mountains, folds, faults, volcanoes, earthquakes, ocean trenches, and the mid-oceanic ridges.
Plates: Giant, rigid slabs of the Earth’s crust. The plates “float” on a dense, fluid layer just beneath them.
An elevated area of relatively level land.
The number of people who live in a defined area.
Prime Meridian
Zero degrees longitude. Runs through the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England. The prime meridian globe into the Western and Eastern hemispheres. The Earth’s time zones are measured from the prime meridian. The time at 0° is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Universal Time (UT).
Robinson projection
Introduced in 1963 by Arthur Robinson. Unlike the mercator projection, this representation reflects the spherical appearance of Earth. Like the mercator projection, distortions occur.
Richter scale
A logarithmic scale for measuring the magnitute (intensity) of earthquakes. Introduced in 1035 by Charles F. Richter.
Ring of Fire
Also called the Circum-Pacific belt is a zone that surrounds the land areas that ring the Pacific Ocean wherein volcanic and seismic activity occurs. Approximately 90% of the world’s earthquakes occur there.
The physical features of the Earth’s surface such as landforms.
Topographic map
A map that shows the topography of an area using contour lines to represent the size, shape, and elevation of the features.
Tropic of Cancer
A latitude line that lies a quarter of the way from the equator to the North Pole. During the summer solstice, the sun is directly overhead.
Tropic of Capricorn
A latitude line that lies a quarter of the way from the equator to the South Pole. During the winter solstice, the sun is directly overhead.

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Nations Of The World

Sung to the tune of ?

And now the nations of the world, brought to you by Yakko Warner!

United States, Canada, Mexico, Panama
Haiti, Jamaica, Peru,
Republic Dominican, Cuba, Carribean
Greenland, El Salvador too.
Puerto Rico, Columbia, Venezuela
Honduras, Guyana, and still,
Guatemala, Bolivia, then Argentina
And Ecuador, Chile, Brazil.
Costa Rica, Belize, Nicaragua, Bermuda
Bahamas, Tobago, San Juan,
Paraguay, Uruguay, Surinam
And French Guiana, Barbados, and Guam.

Norway, and Sweden, and Iceland, and Finland
And Germany now one piece,
Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia
Italy, Turkey, and Greece.
Poland, Romania, Scotland, Albania
Ireland, Russia, Oman,
Bulgaria, Saudi Arabia
Hungary, Cyprus, Iraq, and Iran.
There’s Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan
Both Yemens, Kuwait, and Bahrain,
The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and Portugal
France, England, Denmark, and Spain.

India, Pakistan, Burma, Afghanistan
Thailand, Nepal, and Bhutan,
Kampuchea, Malaysia, then Bangladesh (Asia)
And China, Korea, Japan.
Mongolia, Laos, and Tibet, Indonesia
The Philippine Islands, Taiwan,
Sri Lanka, New Guinea, Sumatra, New Zealand
Then Borneo, and Vietnam.
Tunisia, Morocco, Uganda, Angola
Zimbabwe, Djibouti, Botswana,
Mozambique, Zambia, Swaziland, Gambia
Guinea, Algeria, Ghana.

Burundi, Lesotho, and Malawi, Togo
The Spanish Sahara is gone,
Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Liberia
Egypt, Benin, and Gabon.
Tanzania, Somalia, Kenya, and Mali
Sierra Leone, and Algiers,
Dahomey, Namibia, Senegal, Libya
Cameroon, Congo, Zaire.
Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar
Rwanda, Mahore, and Cayman,
Hong Kong, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Yugoslavia…
Crete, Mauritania
Then Transylvania,
Monaco, Liechtenstein
Malta, and Palestine,
Fiji, Australia, Sudan

Nations of the World – Same song as above, but with flags instead of flags.

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The following song lyrics are from    Here is video of it:

WAKKO’S AMERICA:  States & Capitols Song (Episode 21)
Song to the tune of Turkey in the Straw.   Lyrics by Randy Rogel.

Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Indianapolis, Indiana
And Columbus is the capital of Ohio
There’s Montgomery, Alabama, south of Helena, Montana
Then there’s Denver, Colorado, under Boise, Idaho.

Texas has Austin, then we go north
To Massachusetts’ Boston, and Albany, New York
Tallahassee, Florida, and Washington, D.C.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Nashville, Tennessee.

Elvis used to hang out there a lot, ya know.

Trenton’s in New Jersey, north of Jefferson, Missouri
You’ve got Richmond in Virginia; South Dakota has Pierre
Harrisburg’s in Pennsylvania and Augusta’s up in Maine
And here is Providence, Rhode Island, next to Dover, Delaware.

Concord, New Hampshire, just a quick jaunt
To Montpelier, which is up in Vermont
Hartford’s in Connecticut, so pretty in the fall
And Kansas has Topeka; Minnesota has St Paul.

Juneau’s in Alaska and there’s Lincoln in Nebraska
And it’s Raleigh out in North Carolina and then
There’s Madison, Wisconsin, and Olympia in Washington
Phoenix, Arizona, and Lansing, Michigan.

Here’s Honolulu; Hawaii’s a joy
Jackson, Mississippi, and Springfield, Illinois
South Carolina with Columbia down the way
And Annapolis in Maryland on Chesapeake Bay.

They have wonderful clam chowder.

Cheyenne is in Wyomin’ and perhaps you make your home in
Salt Lake City out in Utah, where the Buffalo roam
Atlanta’s down in Georgia, and there’s Bismarck, North Dakota
And you can live in Frankfort in your old Kentucky home.

Salem in Oregon; from there we join
Little Rock in Arkansas; Iowa’s got Des Moines
Sacramento, California; Oklahoma and its city
Charleston, West Virginia, and Nevada, Carson City.

That’s all the capitals there are!

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States in alphabetical order

New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
West Virginia

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