Chemistry & Physics

This section will include test prep questions for both Apologia’s Chemistry and Physics.  Currently, it includes a vast array of links to awesome science sites that we enjoy almost daily.  Can you tell this is our favorite subject? My son’s formal study of chemistry will be in 10th grade and physics in 11th grade.   Check back.  I am not done moving my collection of favorite links over to this post.

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PERIODIC TABLE SONG

http://showandknow.com/subjects/science/physical-science/periodic-table-song:

There’s Hydrogen and Helium
Then Lithium, Beryllium
Boron, Carbon everywhere
Nitrogen all through the air

With Oxygen so you can breathe
And Fluorine for your pretty teeth
Neon to light up the signs
Sodium for salty times

Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon
Phosphorus, then Sulfur, Chlorine and Argon
Potassium, and Calcium so you’ll grow strong
Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium and Chromium and Manganese

CHORUS
This is the Periodic Table
Noble gas is stable
Halogens and Alkali react aggressively
Each period will see new outer shells
While electrons are added moving to the right

Iron is the 26th
Then Cobalt, Nickel coins you get
Copper, Zinc and Gallium
Germanium and Arsenic

Selenium and Bromine film
While Krypton helps light up your room
Rubidium and Strontium then Yttrium, Zirconium

Niobium, Molybdenum, Technetium
Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium
Silver-ware then Cadmium and Indium
Tin-cans, Antimony then Tellurium and Iodine and Xenon and then Caesium and…

Barium is 56 and this is where the table splits
Where Lanthanides have just begun
Lanthanum, Cerium and Praseodymium

Neodymium’s next too
Promethium, then 62′s
Samarium, Europium, Gadolinium and Terbium
Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium
Ytterbium, Lutetium

Hafnium, Tantalum, Tungsten then we’re on to
Rhenium, Osmium and Iridium
Platinum, Gold to make you rich till you grow old
Mercury to tell you when it’s really cold

Thallium and Lead then Bismuth for your tummy
Polonium, Astatine would not be yummy
Radon, Francium will last a little time
Radium then Actinides at 89

REPEAT CHORUS

Actinium, Thorium, Protactinium
Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium
Americium, Curium, Berkelium
Californium, Einsteinium, Fermium
Mendelevium, Nobelium, Lawrencium
Rutherfordium, Dubnium, Seaborgium
Bohrium, Hassium then Meitnerium
Darmstadtium, Roentgenium, Copernicium

Ununtrium, Flerovium
Ununpentium, Livermorium
Ununseptium, Ununoctium
And then we’re done!!

AUDIO AND VIDEOS OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

The following are suitable for elementary grades:

The following are geared for middle school and beyond:

ARTICLES RELATED TO CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

BOOKS RELATED TO CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

I suggest you visit the library.  There are too many to list here.  The following are a few of our favorites.

  • Science Magic With Light by Chris Oxlade
  • Science Magic Tricks By Nathan Shalit, Helen Cerra Ulan – paper magic tricks
  • It’s not magic, it’s science!: 50 science tricks that mystify, dazzle & astound by Hope Buttitta
  • Wanna bet?: science challenges to fool you by Vicki Cobb and Kathy Darling
  • Ballistic Homeschooling by Hal and Melanie Young
  • Janice VanCleave has authored many science books we like
  • Rocket Boys by Homer Hadley Hickam, Jr. – inspiring autobiography
  • Check back.  I will be adding more this this section.

MISCELLANEOUS

* * *

ROCKET SCIENCE

The following resources were used to prepare my son for his 6th grade science fair project.  The project idea came from my child’s desire to play with fire.  No worries.  He has an excellent safety record.  I supervised and videotaped nearly every one of his experiments so he could take notes from the videos.  We learned that writing notes while tending a fire is too stressful, especially when tracking the time it takes to boil water and how long it takes to burn half a pound of fuel.

Each year, we spend a fair amount of time preparing for science fair.   With that in mine, I ask my son to make a product we would want to keep long after fair.  A properly made rocket stove is extremely fuel efficient, emits very little smoke, is portable, and is convenient for camp cooking.  We have used it for making popcorn at park play dates.  Most kids love to take turns feeding a fire.

Here is a photo of the first tin can rocket stove our family ever made: https://hemetsunshine.wordpress.com/2012/04/08/inside-a-tin-can-rocket-stove.

The following are notes we found either useful in explaining the rocket stove or the science concepts that helped my son think deeper about its design.  I will continue to add resources here as my son wants to make a rocket oven/kiln.  Our current rocket stove will be the base for ovens made of various materials and oven sizes in order to find the one that best fits our family’s needs.

VIDEOS RELATED TO THE ROCKET STOVE

ARTICLES AND COMMENTS ABOUT THE ROCKET STOVE

ROCKET STOVE BREAD OVEN

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z-g3jwv3R8Q – Aprovecho Rocket Bread Oven – Jan 23, 2012 – Dean Still, Executive Director of Aprovecho Research Center, demonstrates a prototype biomass bread oven using rocket stove principles. Rather than using earthen mass, this insulated stove using two steel drums heats quickly and efficiently using less wood. The oven uses the highly engineered combustion chamber from our institutional 60 liter stove, designed by Damon Ogle, that fully combusts harmful gasses and particulate matter.

HOW A ROCKET STOVE/MASS HEATER WORKS

HOW A SMOKE DETECTOR WORKS

CARBON DIOXIDE

CARBON MONOXIDE

FIRE

ARTICLES AND COMMENTS ABOUT FIRE

FLAME

BIOCHAR (TERRA PRETA)

HEAT TRANSFER

THERMOMETERS

ENERGY

INSULATORS AND CONDUCTORS

MATTER, MOLECULES AND ATOMS

MASS

DENSITY AND BUOYANCY

THERMODYNAMICS

INSPIRATION FROM GREATEST DISCOVERIES

PROJECT VOCABULARY

  • A biomass stove is a stove that uses bio mass for fuel.
  • Wood is one many types of biomass.
  • Combustion is a chemical reaction that produces heat and light. The most common form of combustion is fire. Most forms of combustion happen when the gas oxygen joins with another substance. For example, when wood burns, oxygen in the air joins with carbon in wood. Combustion can be slow or fast depending on the amount of oxygen available. Combustion that results in a flame is very fast and is called burning. Combustion can only occur between gases.
  • Uncombusted material is the material that was left unburned.
  • Ash and smoke are the uncombusted materials left after a wood burning fire.
  • Emissions are the act or an instance of emitting; or a substance discharged into the air, especially by combustion.
  • Char is wood that has been scorched, burned, or reduced to charcoal, but not completely consumed by the fire.
  • Embers are the tiny particles that are so hot they glow.
  • Amber is the hard translucent fossilized resin produced by extinct coniferous trees.  This is not related to this project.
  • Blaze is the brilliant burst of fire, also known as a flame.
  • Chemicals are substances with a distinct molecular composition that is produced by or used in a chemical process.
  • Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, but, being colorless, odorless, tasteless, and initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect.
  • Creosote is the gummy, foul smelling, corrosive and extremely combustible substance that, if no precautions are taken, will coat the insides of everything it passes through. It is formed when volatile gases given off in the burning process combine and condense on their way out of the chimney.
  • Soot is the fine black particles, chiefly composed of carbon, produced by incomplete combustion of coal, oil, wood, or other fuels.
  • Flame is a hot glowing body of ignited gas that is generated by something on fire.
  • Configuration means arrangement of parts.
  • Ignite is to cause to burn; to set fire to; or to subject to great heat, especially to make luminous by heat.
  • Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other.
  • Convection is a process of heat transfer through a gas or liquid by bulk motion of hotter material into a cooler region
  • Radiation is when electromagnetic waves travel through space.  When electromagnetic waves come in contact with an object, the waves transfer the heat to that object. Electromagnetic waves travel through empty space. The sun warms the earth through the radiation of electromagnetic waves.

PROJECT NOTES

  • The rocket stove was invented by Dr. Larry Winiarski in 1982.
  • A properly built rocket stove will burn 75-90% less wood than an open fire.  This results in a 90% reduction in carbon monoxide and particles in the air.
  • A clean burning rocket stove is a rocket stove that has the most complete combustion.
  • Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply to enable complete oxidation to carbon dioxide. The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. High levels can cause death. Poisoning can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms mimic other illnesses
  • The rocket stove fuel is dried twigs.
  • Wood combustion causes solid wood to be transformed into heat, light, carbon dioxide, steam from water and wood ash.   Gasified water or water vapor in air is called atmospheric humidity.
  • Ashes are formed by components of wood that cannot burn so they remain solid.
  • The wood in this study are Apricot, Persimmon and Pomegranate twigs from my trees.   They were dehydrated to remove as much moisture as possible to reduce smoke emissions. The twig diameters used for this project were one fourth inch to one inch.
  • In chemistry, carbon dioxide is written as CO2, carbon monoxide is written as CO, and water is written as water H2O.
  • There are two different types of smoke detectors — ionization and photoelectric.  Our smoke detector is ionization type. It is triggered when particles in the air reach 0.1 micron. One micron is 1/25000 of an inch; a 0.1 micron particle is 1/250000 of an inch.
  • Limiting heat loss helps the oven burn more efficiently. Heat loss can happen by conduction, convection, radiation and infiltration.  Insulating the combustion chamber is a way to prevent some heat loss.
  • biochar
  • The difference between coal and charcoal is: Coal is solidified decayed plant matter, compressed over a long time. Charcoal is hardwood that has been heated to a high temperature in the absence of oxygen.  You can cook food with charcoal, but exposure to a coal fire would poison your food.
  • In Greek mythology, Prometheus was a Greek deity that was said to have brought fire to humans.
  • Buckminster Fuller, said: Fire is the Sun’s energy unwinding from the tree’s log. Each ring of the tree is the impoundment of one year of the Sun’s fire (energy).  So the fire is many years of the Sun’s flame, now unwinding from the tree.

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