Biology & Botany

In order to commit to memory, vocabulary lists are copied into the following typing program:



Biology. The study of living things.
Biologists. People who study living things.
Taxonomy. The classification of organisms.
Classification. The process of placing things into groups.
Five Kingdoms system of classification. most common system in use
Animalia is in the Animal Kingdom: These are organisms that usually move around and find their own food.
Plantae is in the Plant Kingdom: These are organisms that make their own food and do not actively move around.
Fungi is in Fungi Kingdom: These are organisms that absorb food from living and non-living things.
Protista is in Protist Kingdom: These are organisms that have single, complex cells.
Monera (Prokaryota) is in Moneran Kingdom: These are organisms that have single, simple cells.


Kingdom organisms are segregated into phyla.
Phylum organisms are segregated into classes.
Class organisms are segregated into orders.
Order organisms are segregated into families.
Family organisms are segregated into genus.
Genus organisms are segregated into species.
Binomial nomenclature is the two names to an organism. Names are assigned according to genus and species using Greek or Latin words.
Latin is used for scientific names, but is no longer spoken.  If is beneficial to learn Latin and Greek root words because about 80 percent of the entries in any English dictionary are borrowed, mainly from Latin. Over 60 percent of all English words have Greek or Latin roots. In the vocabulary of the sciences and technology, the figure rises to over 90 percent.


The following terminology was gleaned from Exploring Creation with Botany by Apologia.  This textbook is geared for elementary aged students.


Vascular plants have tubes that carry water and nutrients to the plant.
Non-vascular plants do not have tubes.  They absorb water like a towel.
Angiosperms make flowers. The flowers become seeds contained in fruit.
Gymnosperms do not make flowers. They make seeds in uncovered containers.
Purpose of a flower is to make seeds.
Sepal protects the flower bud.
Calyx is all of the sepals together.
Corolla is all of the flower petals together.
Nitrogen is one of the most critical plant nutrients.  Carnivorous plants are able to survive in poor soils because they can get nitrogen by digesting insects.
Venus flytrap keeps from shutting its leaf when something other than an animal falls into its trap until two of its hairs, one after the other are touched.
Bladderwort has bladders on its roots that open up when an insect or fish hits them and then traps its prey by sucking the insect or fish into the bladders.
Pitcher plant is the most frightening of the carnivorous plants because it can trap and digest the largest animals.  Creatures trapped inside the pitcher plant cannot escape because it has tiny prickles pointing down that poke the insect when it tries to crawl out. It also has rainwater for the insect to drown in.
Sundews trap and digest insects by covering them with sticky goo that makes them stick to the plant. When an insect is stuck, it wraps tentacles around the insect.


Wind pollination is when pollen is carried to plants via the wind.
Self-pollination is when the pollen from a flower lands on the carpel of a flower of the same plant.
Flower petals die after being pollinated because the flower spent its energy making the seeds.  It no longer needs to attract pollinators.
Main purpose of fruit is to help disperse seeds.
Main difference between a fruit and a vegetable is that it contains seeds, and a vegetable does not.
Fruit is a seed-bearing structure that develops from the ovary of a flowering plant.
Vegetable is the other plant parts, such as roots, leaves and stems. For example, the seedy outgrowths such as apples, squash, tomatoes are all fruits, while roots such as beets, potatoes and turnips, leaves such as spinach, kale and lettuce, and stems such as celery and broccoli are all vegetables.
Seed dispersal is when a seed is moved away from its mother plant.
Name two methods of dispersal.  Human dispersal is where humans move seeds around to plant crops.  Water dispersal is where seeds float on water to move away from their mother plants.
Leaves make the food for the plant.
Stomata opens and closes in order for it to inhale carbon dioxide and to exhale oxygen.
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants combine water, carbon dioxide, and sunshine absorbed by chlorophyll to make oxygen and sugar.
Four things a plant needs to make food are water, light, chlorophyll and carbon dioxide. If one ingredient is removed, then photosynthesis cannot happen.
Chlorophyll is what makes leaves green.
Transpiration is the passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere.


Three main purposes of roots are to anchor the plant to the ground, absorb water and nutrients for the plant, and to prevent soil erosion.
Root hairs important because they do most of the work of absorbing water and nutrients.
Root cap is the strongest part of the root. It is at the tip.
Geotropism, aka gravotropism, is the ability of plant roots to grow down into the earth.
How much a tree has grown can be discovered by looking at the distance between the terminal bud scars.
Twig parts include one terminal bud, lenticels, nodes, internodes, and auxiliary buds.
Lenticels are tiny holes in the bark so the tree can breathe.
Largest trees in the world are giant sequoias. They are a kind of redwood. They are found in Northern California and Oregon.
Oldest trees in the world are Bristlecone pines. They are found in Inyo County, California.
Second oldest tree in the world is named Methuselah. Another tree was discovered in 2013!
The oldest tree in the world provides evidence for the worldwide Flood reported in the Bible by coinciding with when the worldwide Flood occurred. We would find much older trees if the flood did not occur.


Three kinds of conifer leaves are needle-like, scale-like and awl-like.
Male cones produce pollen.  Female cones produce seeds. When pollen comes in contact with seeds, fertilization occurs, and seeds begin to develop.
It takes one year for a fertilized conifer egg to to mature.
Forest fires can be beneficial.  Ashes from forest fires provide valuable nutrients for the soil. The landscape cleared off landscape is able to host a wider variety of living organisms.
Two conifers that do not produce cones are Junipers and Yews.
Cycad is a gymnosperm because it produces uncovered seeds. It is not a pine tree even though it produces cones. It looks like a palm tree. It has wood and leaves like an angiosperm.
Gingko has leaves that are broad and fall off in the winter.  The broad leaves make it look like an angiosperm. It is a gymnosperm because it produces uncovered seeds.
In landscaping, male gingko biloba trees are preferred because the female gingko produces seeds that smell like vomit.
Ferns are found in forest floors because they prefer moist and shady environments.
Frond is the leaf of a fern and palm tree.


Groups of sporangia are called Sori. They are found on the underside of a fern frond.
Sporangia is a capsule that contains spores of fungi, algae or ferns.
In the fern life cycle, the little structure with male and female parts is called prothallus.
Antheridia is the name of the male part of a fern. It produces sperm.
Fiddlehead is the name of the frond that is about to unfurl.
Gemma is mass of cells that detaches from the parent and develops into a new plant.
Rhizomes are the runners spreading along the ground in order for the plant to reproduce.
Clones are new plants share the same DNA as the parent plant.
Tree ferns are large ferns that look like cycads or palm trees Their trunks are a mass of roots, they produce spores instead of seeds, and their fronds unfurl from fiddleheads.
Bryophytes are the smallest members of the plant kingdom.  Mosses are a member of Bryophytes
Archegonia is the female part of the plant.  It produces eggs.
Sporophyte is produced by a fertilized egg. This little stalk then produces spores that will germinate into moss plants.
Brood bodies are parts of moss that are designed to be separated from the plant in order to grow into a new moss plant.  It is a clone since it has the same DNA.
Desiccation is the ability of cells to revive from an air-dry state.
Desiccation tolerance refers to the ability of an organism to endure extreme dryness or drought conditions. Mosses has the ability to desiccate.
Lichen are not really plants.  They are made of fungus and algae.  A Mushroom is a fungus.  Pond scum is algae.  Their dependent relationship is called symbiosis.






We are scheduled to study Apologia Biology in the 2016-17 school year.  When it gets closer to that time, I will include an outline of our textbook with links organized in the order they are discussed in the book.  Meanwhile check back.  This section will be continually updated.

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