The following are excerpts from http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/adrien-marie-legendre-591.php:

**Pythagoras** lived from 570 BC-495 BC in Greece. Pythagoras of Samos is known for his mathematical works such as the ‘Pythagoras Theorem’ and also for his philosophical teachings. He studied under ***.

**Euclid** lived from 330 BC- ***? in Greece. He is known as the Father of Geometry. He was responsible in connoting geometrical knowledge and also wrote Euclid’s Elements and framed the skeleton for geometry that would be used in mathematics by the Western World for over 2000 years. He studied in Plato’s Academy, Athens, Greece.

**Archimedes** lived from 287 BC – ***? in Syracus, Greece – He is known for Antikythera, Mechanism, Archimedes’ Screw, Hydrostatics, Levers, and Infinitesimals.

**René Déscartes** lived from 1596-1650 in France. He invented the Law Of Conservation Of Mechanical Momentum. His most famous works include La Geometrie, Discourse on the Method, Principles of Philosophy, Passions of the Soul and Meditations on First Philosophy. He is known as the Father of Modern Philosophy.

**Blaise Pascal** lived from 1623-1662 in France. He invented the mechanical calculator, hydraulic press, and wrote famous religious works like “Lettres provinciales and the Pensees.”

**Gottfried W. Leibniz** lived from 1646-1716 in Germany. He discovered Infinitesimal Calculus. He made significant achievements being co-inventor of calculus, Leibniz formula for ð, Leibniz harmonic triangle, Leibniz integral rule, and Leibniz formula for determinants.

**Jacob Bernoulli** lived from 1654-1705 in Switzerland. He invented the Constant E, the Bernoulli differential equation, Bernoulli numbers, Bernoulli trial, Bernoulli’s inequality, and Lemniscate of Bernoulli.

**Leonhard Euler** lived from 1707-1783 in Swizterland and Russia. He is known for Introduction in analysin infinitorum, Institutiones calculi Differentialis, Euler’s number, the Greek letter ‘Ó’, and Euler-Lagrange equation.

**Jean Le Rond d’Alembert** lived from 1717-1783 in France. He is famous for his contributions to mathematics and physics. He also served as editor of mathematical and scientific articles in “Encyclopedie”, the French encyclopedia.

**Johann Heinrich Lambert** lived from 1728-1777 in Switzerland and Prussia. He discovered the Hygrometer. He is known for irrationality of ð, Lambert-Beer-

Bouguer Law, and Transverse Mercator projection.

**Joseph Louis Lagrange** lived from 1736-1813 in Italy and France. He invented Calculus of Variations. He was known for his creations related to Calculus Celestial and Analytical Mechanics and also studied number theory. His name was inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

**Adrien-Marie Legendre** lived from 1752-1833 in France. He introduced Legendre polynomials and Legendre transformation.

**Carl F. Gauss** lived from 1777-1855 in Germany. Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Quadratic Reciprocity Law, Prime Number Theorem, Theories of Binary and Ternary Quadratic Forms, and Invention of Heliotrope.

**Augustin-Louis Cauchy** lived from 1789-1857 in France. One of the greatest modern mathematicians. He was a pioneer in mathematical analysis and the theory of substitution groups.

**Christian Doppler** lived from 1803-1853 in Austria. He is known for the Doppler Effect.

**Évariste Galois** lived from 1811-1832 in France. He determined a necessary and sufficient condition for a polynomial to be solvable by radicals. He has been hailed by many as the father of modern algebra.

**Karl Weierstrass** lived from 1815-1897 in Germany. He is known for ‘Weierstrass function’. He is also known as the Father of modern analysis.

**George Booler** lived from 1815-1864 in Britain. He invented Computer Science and Boolean logic. He is the author of “The Laws of Thought.”

**Arthur Cayley** lived from 1821-1895 in England. He was a popular mathematician who helped found modern British school of pure mathematics.

**Charles Hermite** lived from 1822-1901 in France. He is known for his tremendous research in mathematics and researches on number theory, quadratic forms and invariant theory, and elliptic functions.

**Bernhard Riemann** lived from 1826-1866 Germany. Riemann zeta function, Riemann hypothesis, Theory of higher dimensions, and Riemannian metric.

**Richard Dedekind** lived from 1831-1916 Germany. ‘Lectures on Number Theory’, ‘Continuity and Irrational Numbers’ and Modular Lattices.

**Georg Cantor** lived from 1845-1918 Germany. He discovered the Eponymous Paradox, founded the set theory and is also credited with defining the cardinal numbers and the ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. He is also responsible for advancing the study of the trigonometric series.

**Felix Christian Klein** lived from 1849-1925 Germany. Felix Christian Klein is known for his significant contributions in the application of invariant theory to combine geometry with group theory.

**Henri Poincare** lived from 1854-1912 France. He was known for his discovery of Topology and Qualitative Dynamics. Some of his other notable works are the theories of Special Relativity and Analytical Functions.

**Alfred North Whitehead** lived from 1861-1947 in England. He is known for his contributions in algebra, logic, foundations of mathematics, philosophy of science, physics, metaphysics, and education. Whitehead was a scientist whose areas of expertise were maths and physics, yet his outlook towards these subjects was philosophical than purely scientific.

**David Hilbert** lived from 1862-1943 in Germany. His work in geometry had the greatest impact after Euclid’s prominent works. He is known for Hilbert’s

program, Hilbert’s problems, Hilbert’s axioms, and Hilbert’s basis theorem.

**Hermann Minkowski** lived from 1864-1909 in Poland and Germany. The development of the theory on the geometry of numbers is his well known work. He utilized this theory very skilfully in solving problems of number theory, mathematical physics and the theory of relativity. This geometric method helped him to understand the theory of continued fractions and to generalize it into an algorithm. Personalities like Albert Einstein were his student. Minkowski’s theory of

four-dimensional space-time which is better known as “Minkowski space”, aims to prove that the special theory of relativity that Albert Einstein presented algebraically, can be understood geometrically also. He discussed about this theory through his book “Space and Time”. The works of Einstein and Minkowski

establish the fact that space and time are closely interlinked. This theory of four-dimensional space-time later provided an inspiration for Einstein’s work on general relativity.

**G. H. Hardy** lived from 1877-1947 in Britain. Reformed British mathematics, Known for his extensive achievements in Number Theory and Mathematical Analysis.

**Emmy Noether** lived from 1882-1935 in Germany. Emmy Noether is a renowned German mathematician credited for her contributions to theoretical physics and abstract algebra.

**Srinivasa Ramanujan** lived from 1887-1920 India. He is known for Ramanujan constant, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan’s master theorem, Mock theta functions, Ramanujan conjecture, Ramanujan-Soldner constant, and Ramanujan’s sum.

**Carl Ludwig Siegel** lived from 1896-1981 in Germany. He is know for the Number theory and Celestial mechanics.

**John von Neumann** lived from 1903-1957 in Hungaria and USA. He is know for Game theory, quantum logic, linear programming, and mathematical statistics.

**John Napier** lived from 1904-1617 in Scotland. He originated the concept of logarithm, and created Napier’s Bones and Napier’s analogies.

**Kurt Gödel** lived from 1906-1978 in America. He is known for his ‘incompleteness theorem’ and ‘Gödel’s theorem’. He proved the fundamental results on axioms in mathematics.

**Alexander Grothendieck** was born in 1928 in France. He is known for his theories in algebraic geometry, homological algebra, and functional analysis.

The ***? indicates places I need to fill in the blanks.